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  • 您當前所在位置: 首頁 > 人物風采 > 民建先賢

    吳羹梅:筆筆都是愛國情

    ——中國“鉛筆人”的自強之路

    作者:徐鳴   信息來源:《人民政協報》   發布時間: 2021年01月08日
      
    分享到:

      zhongguoqianbizhizaoyedanshengyu20shiji30niandai。jiangsuchangzhourenwugengmei(zhongguominzhujianguohuifaqirenzhiyi)zaishanghainanshixiexuluchuangbanlezhongguodiyijianenggouzijizhizaoqianxin、qianbiban、biganyijiwaiguanjiagongdequannengqianbizhizaogongchang——“zhongguobiaozhunguohuoqianbichang(jianchengzhongqian)”,wugengmeiyeyoucizaishanghaitanshangbeiguorentuichongwei“qianbidawang”。

      weilezhengkouqi,dapoyangqianbizaizhongguoshichangshangdelongduandiwei,baokuowugengmeizaineideyipiminzuqiyejiamenbujinlijingtuzhi、kaichangchuangye,qiezaiqianbishangbiaomingchengshangyechongfenxiangshehuiheshirenzhanxianleqiangliedeminzuaiguoziqiangqingjie。

      “飛機”牌航空救國

      zhongguobiaozhunguohuoqianbichangzai1935nian10yue8rizhengshishengchanzhiqian,jiuyutongnian7yue25rizhuceledidangqianbishangbiao“feiji”pai,bingshiyong“hangkongjiuguo”xinghao。“hangkongjiuguo”qianbibujinzaizhiliangshangjinlianghedeguode“shidelou”paiqianbikanqi,gengzhongyaodeshigaichenghuyudangshiguorenaiguoxinliwanquanyizhi,suoyishangshihouxiangdangshouxiaofeizhedehuanying。

      wugengmeishunyingminxinjingenqushi,jiang“feiji”zhegemingcizuoweizijichuangyedediyigeshangbiaodemingcheng,qie“feiji”liangziyoudaiyouqiangliedeaiguoqingjie,yinciwugengmeizai“feiji”paiqianbideshizhishang,qingzhuledaliangdexinxue。shouxianshilianshouliuritongchuangguozichunhechangzhoutongxiangzhangweishi,gongtongchuangye,wugengmeifuzezongdeguihua、rongziyijiduiwaishiwu,guozichunzhuyaofuzeshengchanjishu,zhangweishizhuyaofuzecaiwu。

      qicishizhaomuzhigong。1934niandi,wugengmeixianshihuilaojia,qinzidaochangzhoupineryuanyuyuanfangqiatan,bingjingguozhaogongkaoshizhaoshouleyipiqiongkurenjiachushendexuesheng。wugengmeihuanqinglaidaobidebeipingzhongguoqianbigongsishanchangqianbixiaoshoudejinglihejingtongzhizaoqianbibandejigong。lingwaiwugengmeihuanyanpinleliangweijishugaochaodejiqianzhuanggong,bingtongguotamenweizhongqianpeiyangleyipijishugongren。ranhouzaishanghaidiquzhaoshoulesansishiweinvgong,zhuyaocongshiqianxinyunshu、biganyouqi、qianbibaozhuangdengjiandanlaodong。

      zaicishipeixunzhigong。xuetugongjinchanghou,bixuxianpeixunliangnian。zaizheqijian,xuetugongbaitian8xiaoshishangban,wanshangxuexilianggexiaoshi。geixuetugongshangkedelaoshiyouwugengmei、guozichunyijiliangweijiqianzhuangshifu。yinweixuetugongshenmedoubudong,suoyicongzagongkaishizuoqi。zailaoshifudediaojiaoxia,nengdulicaozuojiqihou,shengweijigong。ruonengcaozuoliangzhongjiqi,shengweijishuyuan。zaiwangshangshengjiushizhuligongchengshi。zhepizuizaojinchangdexuetugong,jingguojiniandelilunxuexihexianchangcaozuo,jinbuhenkuai,bushaorenchenglezhongqiandejishugugan。

      jinguanwugengmeiheguozichundouzairibendeqianbichanglishixiguo,danbijingshijiantaiduan,quanbujiaqilaiyebuguo1nianzuoyou,yinerbukenengduiqianbizhizaogongyiyougequanmianlejie,suoyiyikaishishizhikunnanzhongzhong。tongguofanfushiyan、duibiyanghuoqianbi、chayueyouguanziliao,kefuleqianxin、qianbiban、youqidengfangmiandeyidaodaojishunanguan,zhongqianzhongyushengchanchuzijideqianbi。

      diyipichanpinbianshididang“feiji”paiqianbi,shoujiameiluo(12da144zhi)2.4yinyuan。jinguanshoujiagaoyutongdangcideribenqianbi,danzaidangshifanduirihuo、tichangguohuodexingshixia,zhongqiande“feiji”paididangqianbihenkuaizaizhongxiaoxueshengliyingdeleyidingfenedeshichang,dapoleputiangaidiyanghuoqianbidejumian。kangzhanquanmianbaofaqianxi,zhongqianshengchanchuquanbuguochanyuanliaodexinchanpin——“wanquanguohuo”didang“feiji”paiqianbi,chengbenjinweimeiluo1.2yinyuan。

      weiletongribenhuojingzheng,wugengmeiyimeiluoliuqijiaodepeibenjiagetourushichangxiaoshou。jialianwumeidedidang“feiji”paixilieqianbi,shoudaoguangdazhongxiaoxueshengdehuanying,yijuqudailedabufenribendidangqianbi。

      “鼎”牌自強不息

      wugengmeideqianbidawangzhilu,shicongliuxueribenshikaishide。

      1928nian8yue,wugengmeihuaizhuxuexiribenrende“zhuanwushiyong”,xuechengzhihoubaoxiaozuguo、zhenxingshiye、fuyurenmindeyuandabaofu,dongduriben。bannianhou,wugengmeicongyuyanxuexiaobiye,jikaoruhengbingaodenggongyexuexiao(jinhengbindaxue),gongduyingyonghuaxuezhuanye。

      zailiuxueqijian,wugengmeijiukaishisikaohuiguohoujutizuoshenmexingye。genjuzijideshili,wugengmeibingmeiyoukaolvjiqizhizao、jiaotongyunshudengdaxingye,ershibijiaoguanzhuzhongxiaoxingye。suizhukebenzhishiheshehuijiaowangdebuduankuoda,jidafengfulewugengmeiderenshengyueliheshehuijingyan,zhujianquedinglejiangqianbizhizaozuoweihuiguochuangyedemubiao。juziliaoxianshi,1925nianzhi1931nian,shanghaijianghaiguanjinkoudeqianbijineshuliangyue600wanyinyuan。yaodapoyanghuodelongduan,jiubixucongzhongguorenzijikaibanqianbizhizaochangkaishi。

      jingguowugengmeiyixiliezonghefenxi,renweizhiyaozaodechuqianbi,shichangxiaoshoubuchengwenti。qiezhizaoqianbidezhuyaoyuancailiaomutou、shimo、niantudengzaizhongguobingbukuifa。yushi,wugengmeibiankaishikuachulechuangyedediyibu,zijixianzhangwoqianbizhizaojishu。weilexuedaoyouguanqianbizhizaofangmiandezhuanyezhishi,wugengmeibiyeshi,zhaodaomuxiaohuaxuekejiaoshouqiaobenzhonglong,qingtajiangqijieshaojinyijiaribenqianbichangshixiyiduanrizi。

      qiaobenrexintuijian,zaizhengderibenzhenqidaheqianbizhushihuisheshechangshuyuansanlangtongyihou,wugengmeiruyuanlaidaogaisheshennaichuangongchangshixi。shennaichuangongchangchangchangyitiansanlangreqingjiedailewugengmei,xiangtachuanshoulegoumaiyuanliao、jiqiyijichanpinxiaoshoudengzhishi,bingjieshaoleyixiexiangguanderibenqiye。danshi,youguanqianbixindezhizao,tebieshiqianbixindepeifang,queduiwugengmeiyangebaomi,zhianpaitazaizhizaobigandechejianheqianbichengpinchejianshixi。

      guangshidongdebaigan(meiyoushangguoyouqideqianbi)yijiqianbiyouqidegongyi,buzhangwohexinjishu,jiushibuyuanlaibeipingqianbigongsiheshanghaihuawenqianbichangdehouchen,wugengmeixinlikendingyibaigebuyuanyi。yincitacengshitutongguogongchanglizhuguanjishudegongchengshilailejiehexinjishu,danzhuanglenanqiang。weijinglaobantexu,gaigongchengshibuhuibangzhuta。

      wugengmeibusixin,youquqingqiushuyuansanlangsongkou。shuyuansanlangquequanwugengmeifangqikaigongchangdexiangfa,zuihaohuiguohoudanggemaiban,weiribenchangjiatuixiaochanpin。shuyuansanlangaomandijiang:“banqianbizhizaogongyebushiyijianrongyideshiqing。jishidaoniwuding(wugengmeiziding)ershi,nimenzhongguoyebanbuchengqianbichang,bingshengchanchuqianbi。huanshimaiwomenribendeqianbiba。”zhejuhuajidashanghailewugengmeidezizunxin,danshitameiyouzaishuyuansanlangmianqianzuoguoduodejieshi,zhishidandandihuidaleyiju:“bu。woyaobanqianbichang。”

      buyukuaideshixijingliduiwugengmeicijihenda,yegengjiajifaqiwugengmeiyiqiangaiguoreqingyijijiandinglehuiguobanshiyedejuexin。zaipengleliangcidingzihou,wugengmeixuecongmingle,tazhuanerxiangchejianjiechuqianxinpeifangdecaozuogongrenneilixunzhaozijixuyaodedongxi。zaigongyoumendebangzhuxia,wugengmeishefashenrubixinchejian,tongguanpeifangdegongrenjiaopengyou,zhongyugaodaoleqianbibixindepeifang。

      1937nian,zhongqianzhucelegaodangqianbi“ding”paishangbiao。zhongqianshengchanchuwanquanguohuodeqianbiyijigaodanghuituqianbihou,wugengmeijiaoaodiduitongrenmenshuo:“ribenrenduanyandaowowudingershiyezaobuchuzhongguorenzijideqianbi,xianzaiwowudingyishijiushengchanchulejishugaonandezhongguorenzijidegaodanghuituqianbi。”

      danlansedebigan,heisezhantoude“ding”paigaodanghuituqianbi,zaizhiliangshang,yimeiguode“weinasi”paihedeguode“sanbaolei”paiweibiaozhun。jinguan“ding”paigangqibu,zhiliangshangburuyanghuo,danshoujiadi,meiluowei10yinyuan。er“weinasi”paishi27yinyuan;“sanbaolei”paishi54yinyuan。“ding”paijuyoujiageyoushi,qieqiafengneishiquanguorenminriyigaozhangdefanriaiguoqingxuhehonghonglieliede“tichangguohuo”yundong,suoyishenshouxiaofeizhedehuanying。

      “長城”牌抗擊日寇

      zhengdangwugengmeijinluomigudizaishanghaichoubeizhongqianshi,beijingdezhangdayuyejiangmuguangmiaozhunleqianbizhegexingye。zhangdayu,jiangsujiangyinren,liuxuedeguo,huodeleisidundaxuegongyehuaxueboshixuewei。xuechenghuiguo,zhijiaoqinghuadaxue。muguangminruidezhangdayuzhuyidaowenjuyongpinzhongxiaohaozuidadeqianbijuedaduoshucongguowaijinkou,meinianjinghuadiaodaliangbaiyin,erguoneizhizaoqianbidegongchangxishao。baozhu“shiyejiuguo”yuanwang,zhangdayuyaoyuetongxiaojiaoshouzhaozhongyaoyijidangshidezhongyangyanjiuyuanyanjiuyuanshiruweideng,gongtongfaqichuangjianqianbichang,bingqingdangshizaiqinghuadaxueshiyangongchangrenjishideguozhiming、zhengjiechunliangrenzaibeijingchoubei。

      1936nian,yinhuabeidiqurijunchunchunyudongshijujinzhang,guozhimingdengyizhinanxiashanghaijixuchoujian。qianbichangchuqijizifabi3wanyuan,touzizhedabufenshijiaoshouhekejijiexuezhe。1937nian4yue,guominzhengfujingjibushendinghezhun,changchengchangzhuce“changcheng”paishangbiao。6yue,“shanghaichangchengqianbichanggufenyouxiangongsi(jianchengchangqian)”zhengshichenglikaiye。

      chanpinhechangmingjunquming“changcheng”,zhebujinjinshizhangdayudengzhishijiejingyingmenjuyouqiangliedeaiguoqingjie,erweiweichangchenggengshizhonghuaminzudikangwailairuqinzuiyoulidexiangzheng,changqianbianshiyishiyedefangshilaitixianjiuguodexingdong。

      changqianchujianshizhiyougongren、xuetu10duoren。zhuyaoshengchanjiazhidilian、shihexiaoxueshengshiyongde“changcheng”paiqianbi。shengchanguimomeiyuebuzu10wanzhi,dabufenxiaowangshanghaifujindiqudexuexiao。zhizaoqianbideqianxinheqianbibanshixiangguowaigoumaide。qiqishibianhou,changqianbeipotinggong,zhidao1938nian6yuecaizhubufugong。neinianyueyanghuolaiyuanduanjue,changqianchanpingongbuyingqiu。yushijiajianchangfang、zengtianshebei,zhigongkuodazhi50duoren(qizhong70%shixuetu),bingkaishizizhiqianbixin,shiyongguochanshanmu、yinxingdengmucaishengchanpuji、zhongjiqianbi。nulikaituoxiaoshouqudao,chanpintongguofujianyuanxiaoneidi,bingzaitianjin、xianggangdengdisheliteyuejingxiaochu。1939nianqianbinianchanliangdadaojin700wanzhi。1940nian,“changcheng”paiqianbishenzhixiaowangnanyang、yinmiandengdi。

      1941nian12yuetaipingyangzhanzhengbaofa,rijunzhanlingshanghaizujie,shichangdunshixiaotiao。changqianneiwaijiaokun,shengchanshaoliangzhongji、puji“changcheng”paiqianbizhichengcanju。1945nian8yuekangzhanshengli,changqianzhaohuisanjugedidejishugongrenxunsufugong。

      qishiyanghuoqianbifanlanqingxiao,tebieshimeiguo“weinasi”huangganpitouqianbijihuzhanlinglezhenggezhongguoqianbishichang。changqianjijiyanzhi、kaifachukuanshijinside“ying”pai(houyinshangbiaojiufengaicheng“changcheng”pai)huangganpitouqianbi,yikanghengmeiguode“weinasi”paihuangganpitouqianbibingqudejueduiyoushi。

      內遷工廠堅持抗戰“勝利”

      zhongqianjingguoliangniandekuxinjingying,yichujuguimo。zhengdangchangliyewuzhengzhengrishangzhiji,qiqishibianbaofale。shanghaigongshangjiekaishizhushouchaiqiandezhunbeigongzuo。dangran,kaolvdaoqianyiyishiqianshedaodefangfangmianmianshizaitaiduo,feichangfuza,suoyigangkaishijuedingneiqiangongchangdefanweihenxiao,zhuyaoshizhonggongye。yinweizhonggongyeshiguanzhongda,gengyujungongzhizaoxiangguan。erqinggongye、shougongyedengxiangduilaijiangzuoyongpianruo,yincizhongqianbingweilieruneiqianxinglie。dexiqianyiweiyuanhuigaijihuahou,wugengmeiwanfenjiaoji,chuluwufeiyou3tiao:yishizuoyidaibi,zairibentietixiagouyancanchuan;ershipanchugongchang,nahuitouzi,jiucishouchang;sanshizhunbeineiqian,baocunshili,kangzhandaodi。

      zhengshibaozhu“shiyejiuguo”linian,wugengmeicailianheleguozichun、zhangweishikaibanqianbichang,yincimanqiangdeaiguoqingyijishiyexin,doubuyunxutazouqianmianliangtiaolu。yejiushijiang,wugengmeizhiyouxuanzedisantiaolu。raner,zhendeyaoneiqian,tanherongyi。qiebushuochaiqianyuanchang、ranhoudaoxindediquxinjianchangfang、fugongfuchandengzhongduojutishiwu,guangchaiqianguochengzhongheyunshutuzhongsuoshoudaodesunshiyijiyantukenengyudaodefengxian,doukexiangerzhi。kaichangzuoshengyijiushiweilezhuanqian,erneiqiankendingdepeiqian。danguojiaxingwangpifuyouze,kangriaiguojuebuzuowangguonu,jishihuijiashunan。tongshi,wugengmeiyugandao,zhechangkangrizhanzhengbukenenghuizaiduanshiqijieshu,erqianbizhizaoshiwenjiaoshiyehexuanchuangongzuobibukeshaodegongye,neidiyoushangwuqianbichang,zhenghaozhongqiankeyitianbuzheyikongbai。qieshijianyebuyunxuwugengmeiduosikao。wugengmeihenkuaizuochujueding:neiqian。

      lijingjianxian,zhongqianzhongyubanqiandaodahoufangzhongqing,qiehuanshineiqiangongchangzhongfugongjiaozaodeyijia。jinguanjingyingfeichangkunnan,huobibianzhi,maichuchanpinsuohuilongdezijinbubuzumaijinyuanliao。buguoweileweichizhengchangshengchan,weilezhiyuankangzhan,wugengmeishizhongjianchiboliduoxiao,jianjuebumaiheishijia。weici,wugengmeibudebuyierzai、zaiersandixiangyinxingjieqian,zhishichanglizhaitaigaozhu。

      youyujingyingyalijuda,zhangweishiyuguozichuntongwugengmeifendaoyangbiao。jishiyirenducheng,wugengmeiyejianjuebucongzhongqingchezou,jinliweichishengchan,jinkenengduodizhizaochuqianbilaizhiyuankangzhan,napayincierpochan,yezaisuobuxi。wugengmeizaizhongqingyizhijianchidaokangzhanshengliweizhi。zaiciqijian,zhongqianzonggongshengchanle3785.93wanzhiqianbi。youqishizhongqianyu1943nian8yuetezhide“feiji”pai1225shenglixinghaoqianbi,biganbianxi,bixinjiaoruanhua,shiyongyutuzhishuxie,shoujiadilian。youyugaixinghaomingchengjiqifuhequanzhongguorenminjianchikangzhan、zhidaozuihoushenglideyuanwang,feichangtaokoucai,yincixiaofeizhexiaiyoujia。

      shiyong“feiji”pai、“ding”paiqianbiderencongzhongqingdaoyanan、congchengshidaoyaodong、congzhanchangdaojiaoshi,congjiangjun、shibing,daozhengzaiyibiyihuaxuehanzidezhitong,shenzhimaozedongzaiyananqijianyeyong“ding”paiqianbizaizuozhanditushanghuaxie。zhejiazhongguodahoufangweiyideqianbichang,chengdanqikangrijiuguo、weichizhongguowenjiaoshiyedezhongren。

      后記

      1949nian5yueshanghaijiefang。1950nian7yue1ri,wugengmeixiangyingrenminzhengfuhaozhao,zhengshichengligongsiheyingzhongguobiaozhunqianbichanggufenyouxiangongsi,yijiushiyong“feiji”paihe“ding”paizuoweichanpinshangbiao。erchangqianyeyijiushiyong“changcheng”paishangbiao。suizhu1954nian“zhonghua”paidedansheng,zhongqianbuzaishiyong“feiji”paihe“ding”pai。

      1954nian10yue1ri,zhongqianhechangqianfenbiegaichenggongsiheyingzhongguoqianbigongsiyichanghesanchang。1956nian1yue,sanchangbingruyichang,chenglizhongguoqianbiyichang,“changcheng”paishangbiaobeisuizhidairu。

      zi1958nianqi,zhongguoqianbiyichangkaishidapichukouqianbi,“changcheng”paidangrenburangchongzaizuiqianmian,shuliangzhanquannianqianbixiaoshouzongliangde38.8%。congci,“changcheng”paiqianbiyangmingtianxia,duocihuodeshanghaishimingpaichanpin、guojibolanhuiyinjiang、quanguoqinggongbolanhuijinjiangdengrongyuchenghao。

      (zuozhexishanghaifangzhibowuguantepinyanjiuyuan)

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