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  • 您當前所在位置: 首頁 > 人物風采 > 民建先賢

    冷遹的鄉村建設思想及其現實價值

    作者:莊晉財   信息來源:民建中央網站   發布時間: 2021年02月09日
      
    分享到:

      shenghuozhongdeshiqing,jiushizheyangouranzhizhongyoubiran,biranzhizhongyououran。wozai“sannongzhuangyuan”weixingongzhonghaojiluzijidesannongguancha,yijingwunianyouyu,zhewunianshijianli,bujinshouhuole120duopianxindewenzhang,huanshouhuolezhongduoguanzhuwogongzhonghaodetongrenpengyou,yincizongyouyixiangbudaodeouranchuxian,biruzheciyoujihuijiechudaolengyuxianshengdexiangcunjiansheshijianjiqisixiang。zuotianzaixuexiaodeqiyeweixinli,woshoudaoyitiaoxinxi,shuoshishidaikaimozhaoyafuxianshengtuijianwocanjiayigezhenjiangdantudexiangmu。xinxishixuexiaohuagongxueyuandeyinlaoshifalaide,jiangsudaxuehenda,suoweigexingrugeshan,xiangwozheyangdexiaorenwu,yibanbushixiangguanlingyuxuekedelaoshi,jibenburenshiwo。suoyi,subuxiangshideyinlaoshifalaixinxirangwohenhaoqi,erqiehuantidaozhaoyafulaoqianbeidemingzi,yinweiwoyanjiusannongdeyuangu,zhaoyafuxianshengdangranshibujinshuxierqieshenshenjingyangdelaoqianbeile。wosuijilianxiyinlaoshi,dezhishilengyujinianguandezhuguanchang,yinweidedaozhaoyafuxianshengdetuijian,xiangzhaowoliaoliaoguanyuruhechuanchenglengyuxianshengxiangcunjianshesixiangdeshiqing。shuolaiyeqiao,woshiminjianhuiyuan,danrenminjianzhenjiangshiweifuzhuweiyizhiyeyoushunian,ziranzhidaolengyuxianshengshiwomenminjiandechuangshirenzhiyi,yecengquguolengyujinianguan,danshishuoshihua,zuoweiyigewaixiangren,duilengyuxianshenglejiebingbuduo,meicicanguanlengyuxianshengjinianguandoulaiqucongcong,youcicuoguoxianbeidexiangcunjianshesixiang,keweimodaguocuo!xingdezhaoyafulaoqianbeidetuijian,youxingtingdezhuguanchangdejieshao,huansongwoliangben“huangxunongcungaijinshiyeshiyanqu”deshiliao,xinzhongshifenjidong,danyoupogancankui!yinci,benbuzenmeaishenjiulishidewo,duilengyuxianshengzaishangshiji2、30niandaikaizhande“huangxunongcungaijinshiyeshiyan”youlexuduohaoqi,bingxiajuexinhaohaobuke,yesuanshiwozhegeminjianlaohuiyuanduilengyuxianbeideyizhongmianhuaiba!

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      (一)

      shuoqishangshiji30niandaiqianhoude“xiangcunjiansheyundong”,dajiaqishibingbumosheng,renmenbijiaoshuxideliangdazhongxinjiwei:yiyanyangchuweidaibiaodehebeidingxianpaiheyiliangshumingweidaibiaodeshandongzoupingpai。danshi,qishineigeshihou,zaiquanguoxuduodifangdoucengkaizhanguoleisidexiangcunjiansheyundong,youqihuadongdiqu,rukunshandexugongqiao、suzhoudeshanrenqiao、zhenjiangdehuangxu、taixiandegugaozhuangdeng。yilengyuxianshengweidaibiaode“huangxunongcungaijinshiyeshiyanqu”zaidangshichanshenglejiaodayingxiang。

      lengyuxianshengchushengyujiangsuzhenjiangdantudehuangxuzhen,canjiaguoxinjunqiyi、wuchangqiyihehuguoyundong,shiyigejunshijia,tongshiyeshiminzhuzhengzhijia,yuhuangyanpeidengrenchuangjianminzhujianguohui,shiminjiandechuangshirenzhiyi。tahuanyuhuangyanpeidengrenchuangbanlezhonghuazhiyejiaoyushe,1921niantuichujunjie,zhiliyushiyeyujiaoyujiuguo,xianhouchuangbanjiangbeiyankengongsi、canzhongchang、zhenjiangnvzizhiyexuexiao、shifanxuexiao、nongcunyiyuanhezhenjiangnongcunyiyaoxuexiaodeng,chuangbandezhenjianghuangxunongcungaijinshiyanqu,shidangshi“xiangcunjiansheyundong”huadongdiqudedaibiao。congwoshoutoujinyoudeguanyulengyuxiansheng“huangxunongcungaijinshiyeshiyan”deziliaokan,zhegeshiyanquzaozai1928nianjiukaishijianshe,houlaiyinweiribenqinhuazhanzheng,1938nianbeipozhongduan。

    1612772567888098472.jpg

      genju《huangxunongcungaijinshiyeshiyanbaogao》,huangxunongcungaijinshiyeshiyanqushi1928nianyoulengyuzuoweidifangrenshidaibiao、zhonghuazhiyejiaoyushehejiangsushengnongkuangtinghezuo,chengli“huangxunongcungaijinweiyuanhui”houzhushoutuijindexiangcunjiansheshijian。zhegeshiyanquyihuangxujizhenweizhongxin,jiujinhuaruhuangxu、daxie、bamushan、dongxie、daxiemiao、daxiaoxie、qiaoyan、dazhujia、shanghuangxu、xiaotangxie、linjia、shenjia、guojia、chenxie、chenjia、houshan、shannan、dongshan、datangxie、tumensi、daque、dongzhuang、shangmiaotou、shengzhuang、qingshang、guanzhuang、xiamiaotou、tiandixie、xujia、changxia、jingjia、louan、xihuangxu、ruizhuang、huajia、lujiadeng38gezirancun,zongmianji53pingfanghuali,cunmin1480hu,6432ren。dangshishiyanquchenglideweiyuanhuizhong,youlengyuxianshengdanrenzhuxi,huangyanpei、qiyisan、lixitaodeng9rendanrenweiyuan,bingzaihuangxuzhensheyoubanshichu。houyourenshibiandong,lengyuxianshengjixudanrenzhuxiyizhi,qitahuanyou8weiweiyuan,1weizhidaoyuan,3weiganshi。

      zhexiangnongcungaijinshiyebaokuodeneirongjiqiguangfan,zhuyaobaokuosandalingyu:yishicunzhengfangmian。(1)shelidiaojieweiyuanhuijiejuenongcunderenshijiufen;(2)shelixinyonghezuosheyifazhannongcunjingjihegaishannongyeshengchan;(3)sheyoufangwubaoweituan,fuzenongcunzhian;(4)tuixingjinyan,fangzhiyapiangonghai;(5)zuzhiyonganjiuhuohui,quebaonongmincaichananquan;(6)jinxingnongjiadiaocha,lejienongjiashijiqingkuang;(7)shelihuikuandaibandian,bangzhunongjiajinxingxiaoechuruhuikuandedaiban;(8)juxingzhenzaihuodong,bangzhunongmindiyuhuangzai;(9)xunlianzhuangding;(10)jianshejixienianmisheshi,weinongmintigongshenghuofuwu;(11)tishengyiyaoweishengshuiping,weinongcunjumintigongbuzhongniudou,zhushefangyizhendengjiankangfuwu。ershijiaoyufangmian。(1)zhichifazhanzhongdengjiaoyu,weizhenjiangxianlishifanxuexiaohexianlichujiyuanyikezhiyexuexiaotigonggeleibangzhu;(2)zhichishehuijiaoyushiye,banminzhongjiaoyuguan(rutushushi、daibiwenxunchu、yuebaochu、liudongtushuchedeng)、banyexiao、jiatingshizijiaoxuedian、xiaogongyuan、tongsujiangyan、sishujiminzhongshiziban、yundongchang、dianyingdeng;(3)banteshujiaoyu,rucanzhangrenxunlianban、funvbuxiban、zhiyebuxiban、sishujiaoyuzhidao、qingnianlizhituan、dengdeng。sanshinongminshengjifangmian。(1)kaibannongchang,jinxingxiaomaizhongzhishiyan、yuzhongshiyan、kangbingchongpinzhongshiyan、guoyuan、miaopu、wenshinongye(jianzhuwenshi)、jiachuyangzhi、(2)teyuemaitian,jijinxingxianjinzhongzhifangfadeshiyantian,tongguoqingnongminguanmoxuexitigaozhongzhijishu;(3)tuiguangmeimian,ruaizimian,tuozimiandengtesezhongzhi;(4)zaolin;(5)zhisang;(6)canyezhidao;(7)qiucanpinpinghui;(8)canjianyunxiaohezuo;(9)kaitangzhuba;(10)jianzhushuangliba(xuhongyuguangai);(11)jianzhen(jiang)dan(yang)liangxianguangaishiyanqu,dengdeng。

      congshangshushiyelaikan,dangshilengyuxianshengzhuchide“huangxunongcungaijinshiyeshiyan”delinianxiangdangxianjin:yishiqiangdiaoxiangcunjianshezhong“ren”dezuoyong。zaijipinjiruodeniandai,renshinanyidedaoquanmianfazhande,errendefazhanzuidadezhangai,jiushijiaoyushuipingdixia。zailengyuxianshengzhuchidenongcungaijinshiyeshiyanquli,tebieguanzhu“ren”defazhan,youqishidangdinongminnenglidefazhan,batigaodangdinongmindezhishiwenhuashuipingfangzaizhongzhongzhizhong。shiyanquliduiwenmangkaiyexiaoshiziban,duicanzhangrenshikaizhanteshujiaoyu,duinianqingrenkaibanshifanjiaoyu、zhiyejiaoyudengzhongdengjiaoyu,duishilingertongkaibansishu。chulegezhonggeyangdebanxuezhiwai,huanweirichangjixujiaoyutigongjichutiaojianzhichi,kaibantushushi、yuebaoshi,shenzhihuanyouliudongtushuche。zhexiejiaoyufuwusuoshejidefanwei,jibianzaijintian,yeyouhenduonongcundabudao,kejianlengyuxianshengduixiangcunjianshezhongrendezhishifunengrenshizhishen。ershiqiangdiaoxiangcunjianshezhong“ji”dezuoyong。xiangcunjianshedemubiaozhiyi,jiushijiejuejipinjiruoniandairenmendewenbaowenti。genjushiyanqudebaogaojizai,dangshidehuangxulaobaixingdeshenghuoshifenjianku,yingoumailiboruo,baixingchuandedoushitubu,chidedoushidamaifen,jishaoyoumifanroushi,zhudejinguanshizijiafangwu,danrenduofangshao,weishengtiaojianjicha。weilegaishanzheyangdezhuangkuang,lengyuxianshengzaishiyanqujilituiguangxianjinjishu。youqizaijiejuenongyeshengchanshang,jishukeweijiqichaoqian。biru,weiledikangbingchonghai,tuiguangkangbingnengliqiangdexiaomaixinpinzhong;weilejiaqinyangzhiduochanrou,gailiangjizhongzhuzhong;weilechongfenliyongjiangnanshuitangshuichi,tichangshuitangyangyu;weilejieshenglaodonglituixingxinshinongju,weilemianzaoziranzaihai,liyongxinjishukaitangjianba。zongzhi,tongguojishugexin,rangrendelaodonglijiefangchulai,rangziyuanliyongqilai,rangliangshijijingjizuowuchanliangtishengqilai,congershixiangcunchanyededaohaodeshoucheng,manzurenminshenghuodexuyao。sanshiqiangdiaoxiangcunzhilizhongde“guanxi”hexie。jingjifazhandemudeshimouqurendexingfu,rangnongcunbaixingshenghuowuyou,zaicijichushang,“canglinshierzhilijie”,zuodaolimaoduanzhuang,buduantigaoxiangcunbaixingdewenmingsuyang。weiledachengzheyimubiao,lengyuxianshengzhuchidehuangxushiyanqushifenzhuzhongjiaqiangnongcundejichusheshihefuwudejianshe,birudaolujiaotong、shenghuofuwu(rujixienianmi、shouhuikuandaibandiandeng)、shenghuoanquanbaozhang(shefangwubaoantuan、jiuhuohui)、yiliaofuwu、buliangxingweichengjie(jinzhiyapian)、diaojielinlijiufendengdeng。yifangmiantongguogaishanjichusheshihegonggongfuwu,tigaobaixingdeshenghuopinzhi;lingyifangmiantongguoxingweiguifandejiaohuahemaodundehuajie,yingzaoxiangcunwenminglianghaofenwei,congertuidonghexiexiangcunshehuidegoujian。

    1612772619482096126.jpg

      (二)

      douzhuanxingyi,lengyuxianshengzhudaodehuangxunongcungaijinshiyeshiyanyijingguoqukuaiyigeshiji,jinguanzhegeshiyanqudeshiyeyouyuzhanzhengerzhongduan,meiyougeihourenliuxiatalixiangzhongdemeilixiangcuntujing,danquegeihourenliuxialejiqifengfudejingshencaifuhenongcunfazhanlinian。zuijinyiduanshijian,wodaizhubufenkeyanxuesheng,bazhenjiangshideduodashuxiangzhenzouleyibian,buduansikaozhuzhenjiangnaizhijiangsu、quanguonongcunfazhanzhiweilai,qiazaicishinenggoulejiedaolengyuxianshengdehuangxunongcungaijinshiyeshiyanqu,suanshiyijianmodadexingshi。shijiujiewuzhongquanhui《jianyi》mingquetichu“xiangcunjianshexingdong”,yixiangxindeshiyexuyaogengduotansuoxinggongzuo,lengyuxiansheng“guanzhuyuren、guanzhuyuji、guanzhuyuhexie”dexiangcunjianshelinian,zaijintianrengjuyoufeichangzhongyaodexianshijiazhi。xiangcunzhenxingzuoweiguojiazhanlve,zaiqishishiguochengzhong,jiangsuyaozaiquanguodaitou,sunanyaozaijiangsudaitou。juci,worenweiyoubiyaozailengyuxianshengcengjingjinxingnongcungaijinshiyedehuangxu,chuangjianxiangcunjiansheshifanqu,xianghebeidingxianheshandongzoupingneiyang,zhongqixiangcunjiansheshiyan,yifangmianchuanchengyanyangchu、liangshuming、lengyudengxianbeimenreainongcun、tiexinbaixingdeyouliangchuantong,yijizhinong、ainongdexiangjianlinian;lingyifangmian,jiehexinshidaimianlindejudahuanjingbianhua,tansuozhongguonongyenongcunxiandaihuafazhandekexingdaolu,keweiyishishuangniao!youjianyuci,wotichusandianxiangfa:

      1.zhenjiangshisheli“huangxuxiangcunjianshexingdongshifanqu”。huangxujuyoufengfudexiangjiantiaojianhelishidiyun,sheli“xiangcunjianshexingdong”shifanqu,yifangmianzhangxianlishichuancheng,lingyifangmianjiehechangsanjiaodiqudexiangcunfazhan,tansuolvxianshixiannongyenongcunxiandaihuadedaolu。ru:zaihuangxucunlengyuzaoniandeshiyanqujiuzhishang,huachuyidingdefanwei,jiehexianzaixiangcunjianshexingdongdexiangguanneirong,dazaoyigexianxingshifanqu。

      2.jiangsudaxuesheli“zhongguoxiangjiansixiangyanjiuzhongxin”。jiangsudaxueshiyisuozaonianzhilitigaozhongguonongyejixiezhuangbeishuiping,xianjinzhuzhongyutishengnongyezhuangbeixuekedeshenonggaodengyuanxiao。yulengyudehuangxuxiangjianzhongtigaonongyejishushuipingdeshijianjuyoulishideyizhixing。jianyiyoujiangsudaxuelaixitongyanjiuzhongguobainiangedixiangjianliuxiadebaoguijingshenwenhuayichan,renzhenzongjieguoqujingyanjiaoxun,tansuoweilaizhongguoxiangjiandaolu。

      3. xuanchuandazao“lengyuhuangxuxiangcunjianshe”depinpai。dangqianguojiachangdaoxiangcunchanyeronghefazhan,yanshengxiangcunxinyetaixinchanye,jiushiyaowajuegedibunengfuzhihemofangdequyuwenhuajiyin,bimiankefuzhixingdaozhideqiancunyimian。zhenjiangnaizhijiangsudexiangcunzhenxing,yaoshenwadiyutesewenhua,bingjiangzhiqianruxiangcunchanyefazhandangzhong,daxiangdiyupinpai。xuexijiang“liangshanlilun”shenqianyuxiangcunchanyedezhejiangyangban,yi“lengyuhuangxuxiangjianshiyan”weizaitichuangchupinpai,zhengquyingzaochuxiangcunzhenxingde“jiangsuyangban”,wei“xiangcunjianshexingdong”tigongyigekegongjiejiandemoshi。

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      (zuozheximinjianzhenjiangshiweifuzhuwei,jiangsudaxueguanlixueyuanfuyuanchang、boshishengdaoshi,zhongguoguowainongyejingjiyanjiuhuichangwulishi,zhenjiangshizhujianjufujuchang)

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